FAQ

 

References

American Heart Association. “How much sodium should I eat per day?” Accessed December 7, 2016. https://sodiumbreakup.heart.org/how_much_sodium_should_i_eat.

Bilsborough, S. A., & T. C. Crowe. “Low carbohydrate diets: what are the potential short and long term health implications?” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12(4) (2003): 396–404.

Boden, G., X. Chen, J. Rosner, & M. Barton. “Effects of a 48-h fat infusion on insulin secretion and glucose utilization.” Diabetes 44(10) (1995): 1239–42.

Bough, K. J., J. Wetherington, B. Hassel, J. F. Pare, J. W. Gawryluk, J. G. Greene, R. Shaw, Y. Smith, J. D. Geiger, & R. J. Dingledine. “Mitochondrial biogenesis in the anticonvulsant mechanism of the ketogenic diet.” Annals of Neurology 60(2) (2006): 223–235. DOI: 10.1002/ana.20899.

Bueno, N. B., I. S. de Melo, S. L. de Oliveira, & T. da Rocha Ataide. “Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.” British Journal of Nutrition 110(07) (2013): 1178–87. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114513000548.

Burke, L. M., D. J. Angus, G. R. Cox, N. K. Cummings, M. A. Febbraio, K. Gawthorn, J. A. Hawley, M. Minehan, D. T. Martin, & M. Hargreaves. “Effect of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on metabolism and performance during prolonged cycling.” Journal of Applied Physiology 89(6) (2000): 2413–21.

Cartwright, M. M., W. Hajja, S. Al-Khatib, M. Hazeghazam, D. Sreedhar, R. N. Li, E. Wong-McKinstry, & R. W. Carlson. “Toxigenic and metabolic causes of ketosis and ketoacidotic syndromes.” Critical Care Clinics 28(4) (2012): 601–631. DOI: 10.1016/j.ccc.2012.07.001.

Civitarese, A. E., M. K. Hesselink, A. P. Russell, E. Ravussin, & P. Schrauwen. “Glucose ingestion during exercise blunts exercise-induced gene expression of skeletal muscle fat oxidative genes.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 289(6) (2005): E1023–29. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00193.2005.

Clarke, K., K. Tchabanenko, R. Pawlosky, E. Carter, M. T. King, K. Musa-Veloso, M. Ho, A. Roberts, J. Robertson, T. B. Vanitallie, & R. L. Veech. “Kinetics, safety and tolerability of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate in healthy adult subjects.” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 63(3) (2012): 401–408. DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.04.008.

Courchesne-Loyer A., M. Fortier, J. Tremblay-Mercier, R. Chouinard-Watkins, M. Roy, S. Nugent, C. A. Castellano, & S. C. Cunnane. “Stimulation of mild, sustained ketonemia by medium-chain triacylglycerols in healthy humans: estimated potential contribution to brain energy metabolism.” Nutrition 29(4) (2013): 635640. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2012.09.009.

Cunnane S., S. Nugent, M. Roy, A. Courchesne-Loyer, E. Croteau, S. Tremblay, A. Castellano, F. Pifferi, C. Bocti, N. Paquet, H. Begdouri, M. Bentourkia, E. Turcotte, M. Allard, P. Barberger-Gateau, T. Fulop, & S. I. Rapoport. “Brain fuel metabolism, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease.” Nutrition 27(1) (2011): 3–20. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2010.07.021.

Evans, M., K. E. Cogan, & B. Egan. “Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation.” Journal of Physiology (2016). DOI: 10.1113/JP273185.

Freeman, J. M., E. H. Kossoff, & A. L. Hartman. “The ketogenic diet: one decade later.” Pediatrics 119(3) (2007): 535–543. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-2447.

Freeman, J. M., E. P. Vining, D. J. Pillas, P. L. Pyzik, J. C. Casey, & L. M. Kelly. “The efficacy of the ketogenic diet—1998: a prospective evaluation of intervention in 150 children.” Pediatrics 102(6) (1998): 1358–63.

García-Cáceres, C., E. Fuente-Martín, J. Argente, & J. A. Chowen. “Emerging role of glial cells in the control of body weight.” Molecular Metabolism 1(1–2) (2012): 37–46. DOI: 10.1016/j.molmet.2012.07.001.

Gasior, Maciej, Michael A. Rogawski, & Adam L. Hartman. “Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet.” Behavioural Pharmacology 17(5–6) (2006): 431–439.

Gregory, Rachel M. “A low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet combined with 6 weeks of CrossFit training improves body composition and performance.” Dissertation/Thesis (2016).

Horowitz, J. F., R. Mora-Rodriguez, L. O. Byerley, & E. F. Coyle. “Lipolytic suppression following carbohydrate ingestion limits fat oxidation during exercise.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 273(4 Pt 1) (1997): E768–75.

Johnston, K. L., M. N. Clifford, & L. M. Morgan. “Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78(4) (2003): 728–733.

Johnstone, A. M., G. W. Horgan, S. D. Murison, D. M. Bremner, & G. E. Lobley. “Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87(1) (2008): 44–55.

Kang, H. C., Y. M. Lee, H. D. Kim, J. S. Lee, & A. Slama. “Safe and effective use of the ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex defects.” Epilepsia 48(1) (2007): 82–88.

Kesl, Shannon L., Angela M. Poff, Nathan P. Ward, Tina N. Fiorelli, Ari Csilla, Ashley J. Van Putten, Jacob W. Sherwood, Patrick Arnold, & Dominic P. D’Agostino. “Effects of exogenous ketone supplementation on blood ketone, glucose, triglyceride, and lipoprotein levels in Sprague–Dawley rats.” Nutrition & Metabolism 13 (2016): 9. DOI: 10.1186/s12986-016-0069-y.

Kim, D. W., H. C. Kang, J. C. Park, & H. D. Kim. “Benefits of the nonfasting ketogenic diet compared with the initial fasting ketogenic diet.” Pediatrics 114(6) (2004): 1627–30. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2004-1001.

King, D. S., G. P. Dalsky, W. E. Clutter, D. A. Young, M. A. Staten, P. E. Cryer, & J. O. Holloszy. “Effects of lack of exercise on insulin secretion and action in trained subjects.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 254(5) (1988): E537–E542.

Michalsen, A., B. Hoffmann, S. Moebus, M. Bäcker, J. Langhorst, & G. J. Dobos. “Incorporation of fasting therapy in an integrative medicine ward: evaluation of outcome, safety, and effects on lifestyle adherence in a large prospective cohort study.” Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 11(4) (2005): 601–607.

Misell, L. M., N. D. Lagomarcino, V. Schuster, & M. Kern. “Chronic medium-chain triacylglycerol consumption and endurance performance in trained runners.” Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 41(2) (2001): 210215.

Musa-Veloso, K., S. S. Likhodii, & S. C. Cunnane. “Breath acetone is a reliable indicator of ketosis in adults consuming ketogenic meals.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76(1) (2002): 65–70.

Nielsen, Jörgen V., and Eva A. Joensson. “Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes: stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 44 months follow-up.” Nutrition & Metabolism (London) 5 (2008): 14. DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-5-14.

Paoli, A., K. Grimaldi, D. D’Agostino, L. Cenci, T. Moro, A. Bianco, & A. Palma. “Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 9(1) (2012): 34. DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-34.

Paoli, A., A. Bianco, K. A. Grimaldi, A. Lodi, & G. Bosco. “Long term successful weight loss with a combination biphasic ketogenic Mediterranean diet and Mediterranean diet maintenance protocol.” Nutrients 5(12) (2013): 5205–17. DOI: 10.3390/nu5125205.

Pascoe, D. D., D. L. Costill, W. J. Fink, R. A. Robergs, & J. J. Zachwieja. “Glycogen resynthesis in skeletal muscle following resistive exercise.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25(3) (1993): 349354.

Pérez-Guisado, J., A. Muñoz-Serrano, & Á. Alonso-Moraga. “Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet: a healthy cardiovascular diet for weight loss.” Nutrition Journal 7(1) (2008): 30. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-7-30.

Phinney, S. D., E. S. Horton, E. A. Sims, J. S. Hanson, E. Danforth Jr., & B. M. Lagrange. “Capacity for moderate exercise in obese subjects after adaptation to a hypocaloric, ketogenic diet.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 66(5) (1980): 1152–61. DOI: 10.1172/JCI109945.

Rebello, C. J., J. N. Keller, A. G. Liu, W. D. Johnson, & F. L. Greenway. “Pilot feasibility and safety study examining the effect of medium chain triglyceride supplementation in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial.” BBA Clinical 3 (2015): 123125.

Reichard Jr., G. A., O. E. Owen, A. C. Haff, P. Paul, & W. M. Bortz. “Ketone-body production and oxidation in fasting obese humans.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 53(2) (1974): 508–515. DOI: 10.1172/JCI107584.

Seaton T. B., S. L. Welle, M. K. Warenko, & R. G. Campbell. “Thermic effect of medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides in man.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44(5) (1986): 630634.

Sharman, M. J., W. J. Kraemer, D. M. Love, N. G. Avery, A. L. Gómez, T. P. Scheett, & J. S. Volek. “A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men.” Journal of Nutrition 132(7) (2002): 1879–85.

Sharp, M. S., R. P. Lowery, K. A. Shields, C. A. Hollmer, J. R. Lane, J. M. Partl, … & J. M. Wilson. “The 8 Week Effects of Very Low Carbohydrate Dieting vs Very Low Carbohydrate Dieting with Refeed on Body Composition.” NSCA National Conference, Orlando, FL. (2015).

Sumithran, P., L. A. Prendergast, E. Delbridge, K. Purcell, A. Shulkes, A. Kriketos, et al. “Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss.” New England Journal of Medicine 365 (2011): 1597–1604. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1105816.

Sumithran, P., L. A. Prendergast, E. Delbridge, K. Purcell, A. Shulkes, A. Kriketos, et al. “Ketosis and appetite-mediating nutrients and hormones after weight loss.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67 (2013): 759–764. DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.90.

Suo, C., J. Liao, X. Lu, K. Fang, Y. Hu, L. Chen, … & C. Li. “Efficacy and safety of the ketogenic diet in Chinese children.” Seizure 22(3) (2013): 174–178.

Tiwari, S., S. Riazi, & C. A. Ecelbarger. “Insulin’s impact on renal sodium transport and blood pressure in health, obesity, and diabetes.” American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 293(4) (2007): F97484.

Traul, K. A., A. Driedger, D. L. Ingle, & D. Nakhasi. “Review of the toxicologic properties of medium-chain triglycerides.” Food and Chemical Toxicology 38(1) (2000): 7998.

Vandenberghe, C., V. St-Pierre, A. Courchesne-Loyer, M. Hennebelle, C. A. Castellano, & S. C. Cunnane. “Caffeine intake increases plasma ketones: an acute metabolic study in humans.” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 95(4) (2017): 455458. DOI: 10.1139/cjpp-2016-0338.

Veech, R. L. “The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: the effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial metabolism.” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 70(3) (2004): 309–319.

Volek, J. S., D. J. Freidenreich, C. Saenz, L. J. Kunces, B. C. Creighton, J. M. Bartley, … & E. C. Lee. “Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted ultra-endurance runners.” Metabolism 65(3) (2016): 100–110.

Volek, J. S., M. J. Sharman, A. L. Gómez, D. A. Judelson, M. R. Rubin, G. Watson, … & W. J. Kraemer. “Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women.” Nutrition & Metabolism 1(1) (2004): 13.

Volek, J. S., M. J. Sharman, D. M. Love, N. G. Avery, T. P. Scheett, & W. J. Kraemer. “Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet.” Metabolism 51(7) (2002): 864–870.

Wallace, T. M., N. M. Meston, S. G. Gardner, & D. R. Matthews. “The hospital and home use of a 30‐second hand‐held blood ketone meter: guidelines for clinical practice.” Diabetic Medicine 18(8) (2001): 640–645.

Welle, S., U. Lilavivat, & R. G. Campbell. “Thermic effect of feeding in man: increased plasma norepinephrine levels following glucose but not protein or fat consumption.” Metabolism 30(10) (1981): 953–958.

Westman, E. C., R. D. Feinman, J. C. Mavropoulos, M. C. Vernon, J. S. Volek, J. A. Wortman, … & S. D. Phinney. “Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86(2) (2007): 276–284.

Westman, E. C., W. S. Yancy, J. C. Mavropoulos, M. Marquart, & J. R. McDuffie. “The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.” Nutrition & Metabolism 5(1) (2008): 36.

Yancy, W. S., M. K. Olsen, J. R. Guyton, R. P. Bakst, & E. C. Westman. “A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: A randomized, controlled trial.” Annals of Internal Medicine 140(10) (2004): 769–777.

Young, C. M., S. S. Scanlan, H. S. Im, & L. Lutwak. “Effect on body composition and other parameters in obese young men of carbohydrate level of reduction diet.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24(3) (1971): 290–296.

Never miss out on exclusive content and limited deals.

As a Member, you get instant access to personalized meal plans, exclusive videos & articles, discounts, a 1 on 1 Coaching Session, and so much more. As a member, you join our mission of empowering 1,000,000 people to positively change their lives throughout the world. Get started today.

Monthly

A Great Deal
$ 19
99 /month
  • 7-Day Free Trial
  • Cancel Anytime

Annual

3 Months Free
$ 179
/year
  • 3 Months Free
  • Cancel Anytime

Lifetime

Membership for Life
$ 349
  • Lifetime Access
  • Limited Availability
95% of Diets Fail. Join Today to be Part of the 5%!
95% of Diets Fail. Be Part of the 5%!